The masses of the supermassive black holes in the center of the galaxy show a strong correlation with the total mass of the bulge of the host galaxy. This is in full agreement with the concept of the galaxy formation according to the hypothesis described in Chapter 12 (Cosmology) of BSM.

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The three new black holes support an earlier argument that the mass of black holes in the centers of galaxies are strongly correlated with the overall mass of the galaxies where they reside, he said.

"Somehow, these black holes, when they determine their mass, they know the mass of the galaxy they’re sitting in, or when the galaxy is forming, it knows the mass of a black hole that it is forming around or that it appears in. These are mutually regulated in some way," he said.

The strong tie naturally gives rise to the question about which came first, but the newly discovered objects, coupled with the work of another group of scientists, appears to point to the black hole as kicking off galaxy formation, Richstone said.

Richstone and his colleagues found the black holes -- each of which has the mass of 50 million to 100 million suns – in the hearts of normal elliptical galaxies. Two of the galaxies, NGC 4697 and NGC 4473 are about 50 million light-years from Earth in the Virgo galaxy cluster. The third, called NGC 821, is 100 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Aries. (A light-year is 5.88 trillion miles.)

The three new objects bring the total number of confirmed super-massive black holes to 20.


Reference: L. Frrrarese, and D. Merritt, A fundamental relation between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, Astrophysical journal, 539.L9-L12 (2000); internet version: